Nd:YAG – Neodimium doped yttrium aluminum garnet
Absorption 808 nm | Emission 1064 nm
Nd:YAG (Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with neodymium Nd:Y3Al5O12) is isotropic crystal with cubic symmetry. It is probably one of the most famous oxide crystal which is widely used as active medium in solid state lasers. The crystal is light purple color. The main advantage of crystal is the neodymium ion which provides the leasing activity in crystal because of it replaces a small fraction of yttrium ions in crystal. Crystals are usually grown using Czochralski technique. Although it can be grown using other techniques but Czocharlski technique has great advantages – high optical quality and large diameter can be obtained.
- Crystal advantages
- Laser advantages
- Laser disadvantages
- Nd: YAG is mainly used as laser in industrial, medical, military and scientific applications;
- It‘s main advantages are characteristics of high gain, low threshold, high efficiency, high optical quality, low loss, large mechanical strength, good thermal conductivity and thermal shock characteristics;
- Suitable for laser working mode: CW, pulsed, Q-switched, mode locking, frequency doubling and high-average power lasers;
- Nd:YAG laser rods produce efficient laser output at 1.064 µm;
- Nd:YAG crystals are characterized by relatively small gain bandwidth, which allows to achieve high gain efficiency and low lasing threshold;
- Robust nature make Nd:YAG crystals suitable for high-power continuous wave, high-intensity Q-switched and single- mode operations.
- Very useful for thin materials for quick processing;
- Useful for applications which need high power density such as metal marking;
- Offers higher energy output and very high repetition rate;
- Easy to attain population inversion;
- Nd:YAG laser machine can cut very high reflecting materials such us: aluminum, copper, non-ferrous metals which can’t be cut by other laser cutting machines;
- Easy to operate and maintain;
- Low cost;
- Nd: YAG lasers typically emit light around the peak of 1064 nm, but also there are transitions near 940, 1120 , 1320 and 1440 nm
- Slow production for thicker materials;
- Electron energy level structure of Nd3+ in YAG is complex;
- It has low absorption of radiation of light materials (visible spectrum).
- Nd:YAG laser can be used in manufacturing for engraving and etching various metals and plastics;
- Medical – such as endoscopy, urology, neurosurgery, gynecology, dermatology, dental surgery and general surgery, to treat various ills like cancer and liver lesions, etc.;
- Range finders and illumination devices;
- Used in engineering applications such as resistor, trimming, drilling;
- Used for flow visualization techniques;
- Used in spectrometry.